Session 7 Future of Manufacturing I

Thursday, 12.11.2020, 14:00-16:00 o'clock

Presentations:


Christoph Nicksch: Global Reference System for Factory-wide Integration of Metrology Enabling Flexible Automation in Aeroplane Assembly – Requirements, Concept and Suitable Technologies

14:00-14:20 o'clock

(Paper ID: 1121)

Aeroplane manufacturers face the challenge of increasing production volumes while at the same time reducing manufacturing costs to remain globally competitive. The automation of previously mostly manual production processes in aeroplane manufacturing offers the potential to increase production and reduce manufacturing costs. Current approaches, e.g. the clean-floor-approach, for the assembly automation for large-scale products, require the continuous availability of position information.

For this purpose, a Global Reference System (GRS) is to be developed which combines high-precision local metrology with global metrology and thus makes local information globally available. “Global” metrology systems provide position information in large areas – like an entire production plant –, whereas “local” metrology systems offer various information for the assembly process within a station. With the GRS, a factory-wide coordinate system can be set up to provide spatial relationships between arbitrary entities inside the factory. Still, there are few applications of GRS in the industry. This results from missing prove of applicability of GRS in the industry.

This paper presents a systematic approach for the development and implementation of a GRS. The approach consists of three main steps: Definition of the requirements for a GRS from specific assembly tasks, definition of the requirements for a GRS from the factory-wide availability and evaluation of global metrology systems per the derived requirements. While global metrology forms the base of a GRS, local metrology depends on the assembly task and is not considered in this concept.

The presented procedure is motivated by the design of a GRS for the three use-cases: door, fuselage and wing assembly of an aeroplane. The application-oriented development ensures that the procedure meets the requirements of the industry and can subsequently be used in practice. In the first step, requirements from specific use-cases are collected in order to investigate the extent to which global metrology can be used. In a second step, the definition of factory-wide requirements (e.g. avoiding placements on the ground according to the clean-floor-approach or avoiding attaching components to the aeroplane surface) ensures that the GRS is compatible with the factory environment. The last step includes the evaluation of global metrology system capabilities and requirements using a cost-utility analysis. For this purpose, experts from an aeroplane manufacturer weight both the use-case-based requirements representing specific assembly tasks and the factory-wide requirements. State-of-the-art metrology technologies are investigated such as laser tracker, 3D surface scanner and indoor GPS. The result shows individual strengths and weaknesses of the considered metrology systems for the investigated use-cases in the aeroplane assembly and gives a recommendation which system should be used as a global metrology system within a GRS. This concept can also be transferred to other industries containing general instructions for implementing a GRS.

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Georg Egger: A deployment-friendly decentralized scheduling approach for cooperative multi-agent systems in the production environments

14:20-14:40 o'clock

(Paper ID: 1150)

Decentralized control paradigms are attractive in an ever-changing commercial environment, where there is a trend towards smaller production lot sizes. Whereas centralized scheduling might find a global throughput optimum (even at high computational and implementation cost), decentralized scheduling decisions in a multi-agent system are much more manageable and agents are more robust to handle any disruptions that might take place on the production floor. This paper details a novel implementation approach of a multi-agent based production control, that was developed for a lab-contained production environment that serves as test-bed for decentralized scheduling algorithms, with both a nominal operational mode and a simulation mode.

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Morice Daudi: Self-Organizing Logistics Networks for Less-Than-Truckload

14:40-15:00 o'clock

(Paper ID: 1128)

The Less-Than-Truckload (LTL) is nowadays a common problem resulting from vehicle trucks that run partially filled. The LTL problem is escalated by the increase in small and individualized shipments, which are partly attributed to a paradigm shift towards customized products and services. In overcoming the LTL problem, one goal is to utilize idle slots in vehicle trucks to reduce logistics costs; reduce harmful emissions (CO2), and; improve utilization of physical logistics assets. The realization of this goal requires smart logistics networks that can link shippers and en route carriers (drivers), using a Connect on the Go (ConnGo) modus operandi. To this end, the present paper proposes the ConnGo as an approach for Self-organizing Logistics Networks (SoLN) in LTL. The paper goes further to examining unforeseen issues related to the accuracy of information communicated by shippers. The SoLN approach stands on principles of artificial intelligence to link heterogeneous shippers and en route drivers. In its application, the approach is useful in many areas, such as developing countries where industrial and agricultural products flow in reverse (order) direction.

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Raphael Kiesel: Quantification of economic potential of 5G for latency critical applications in production

15:00-15:20 o'clock

(Paper ID: 1140)

This paper describes an approach for the quantification of economic potential of 5G for latency-critical applications in production. The core element is a framework of quantification criteria for the economic profitability of 5G-technology based on production process parameters. This is mainly achieved by considering the improvements in product quality and process efficiency that are caused by using 5G for the considered production processes. These improvements are then converted into economic benefits to allow a process specific budgeting of 5G before the investment. To validate the proposed concept, the approach is applied to a latency critical milling process of a BLISK.

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Robert Hellbach: IoT-enabled communication systems in testing environments

15:20-15:40 o'clock

(Paper ID: 1117)

Testing systems are preliminary designed for specific use cases to validate the proper functional correctness of goods and of a complex products. Therefore, testing systems are highly focused on a specific functional purpose. The characteristic of a unique design in testing systems leads to high development and manufacturing costs of the testing system itself whilist little numbers are produced. Due to fast developments in products that are driven by economic competition and customer-related requirements, testing systems become obsolete over time and decreasing ever-shorter life cycles. Keeping testing systems economically efficient and consequently avoiding higher product prices, the obsolescence in testing systems need to be reduced by expanding their lifetime from a PLM perspective.

Recycling and re-using single components or modules of testing systems is a predetermined approach to address the mentioned problem. Additionally, the new approaches and communication technologies that are emerging in the field of the Internet of Things (IoT) are predestined to be integrated and can support the reduction of obsolescence in testing systems. Moreover, dependent on the domain where the testing system is applied, different norms and regulations need to be addressed. The presented solution in this paper is containing IoT applications and communication technologies applied in testing environments that are used in the avionic sector. It will show a proof of concept for a testing system, which is build in a modular way and composing an interconnection of resilient components that can work and be operated as conventional testing systems.

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Lukas Hartmann: Waste in value streams caused by information flow: An analysis of information flow barriers and possible solutions

15:40-16:00 o'clock

(Paper ID: 1148)

This paper focuses on causes in information logistics that hinder an efficient and waste free information flow. Therefore, waste, problems and KAIZENs identified in 14 value stream analyses 4.0 from different industry applications are investigated by a root cause analysis. These analyzed problems are clustered based on the phase in the information flow where they occur and the kind of waste they lead to. For every obtained cluster a generalized flow barrier is defined. The results can be used to support the selection of digital technologies and help to design efficient information flows in the production context.

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